once and for all - Speakers

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I'm building a guitar amplifier head, it's a 50W Vox.
How can i tell what kind of cabinet is too much for it?
Let's say i'm using 12" 8 ohm loudspeakers, it also says 300W peak.
I will be using four, if i'll connect them so they will keep their 8 ohm resistance, could i use it with that amplifier? How about 16 ohms? would wiring the 8 ohm so i would get 2 ohms, or the 16 so i would get 4 ohm be louder, or just easier on the amp?

Can i damage the amp?
First, it's a tube amp? You can do whatever you like about speakers, provided that the total impedance of all of them connected like you want to do is that impedance that the amp wants to see. If it's tube and you've got an 8 ohm output transformer, it's better to place an 8ohm load. Whatever mismatch you do won't be dangerous but not advisable, but some people think that it will give better sound to mismatch. However keep mismatching on 2:1 or 1:2 not more.
Speakers for a 50 watt head

I like to keep the capability of the speakers down to less than three times the amp to get the extra output from the higher eff.
In the case of a 4-speaker cab, I would go for four 28 watt Jensens or two Jensens and two Emminence 30 watt. Depends a lot on how and what you play. A couple of 300 watt speakers will never blow up (I know, never say never) but the sound could be a lot better with only 155 watts of speaker capacity on that tube amp. Shields up!!! IMHO!
What won't damage what?

It isn't quite clear which part of the system you are talking about damaging but I always avoid more amp than speaker capacity for two reasons. You have the ability to blow the voice coils and, if you do, you can then blow the amp. I simply try to run the highest eff. speaker set that exceeds the amps output by at least 50%. Higher works but you lose some eff. in the process. A lot of people think that tube amps are the only ones that can be damaged by failing speakers. Solid-state amps can be also. A good set of speakers can also be ruined with an amp with severe clipping or DC factor even if the amp is 1/3 the capacity of the speakers. OK, IMHO.
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