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Old 21st October 2011, 12:24 PM   #1
Elvee is online now Elvee  Belgium
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Default Simple HV series regulators

Here are some examples of simple, cheap, medium performance regulators.

They are in the same league as Maida's for example, but are completely discrete.
This means a slightly increased complexity, but also more flexibility and less failure mechanisms.

Key attributes are:
  • Quiescent current <1.5mA
  • Low drop-out (limited to the threshold voltage of the pass element)
  • Only one high-voltage or power device: the pass element itself
  • No minimum or maximum current: they regulate from an open output to a maximum load limited only by the pass element/heatsinking
  • Stable, rugged, quiet and tolerant

The ripple rejection is shown at 100Hz, for an input voltage of 350V to 450V, first with a load of 10K (30mA), then with no-load, and finally with 1K (300mA)

Next is the output voltage, with a load current varying between 10mA and 110mA, at 1KHz.
And finally, the same in the frequency domain.

Notes: R8 has no physical existence, its purpose is to indicate the proper layout: R5 placed upstream of D1/output node.
The circuit has been tested with an IRF830
Attached Images
File Type: gif SSRb1.GIF (53.9 KB, 940 views)
File Type: gif SSRb2.GIF (53.6 KB, 921 views)
File Type: gif SSRb3.GIF (54.3 KB, 888 views)
File Type: gif SSRb4.GIF (60.9 KB, 861 views)
File Type: gif SSRb5.GIF (63.5 KB, 845 views)
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Old 21st October 2011, 12:49 PM   #2
Elvee is online now Elvee  Belgium
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Next version uses bypasses to improve rejection/output impedance.

Protection diodes have been added, to improve the survivability in case of unexpected events that may discharge the capacitors into the semi's.

Same pictures as above, plus a variant utilizing a different compensation scheme.
For that one, the performances are somewhat improved, but at the expense of the transient behavior.
Attached Images
File Type: gif SSRby1.GIF (59.6 KB, 359 views)
File Type: gif SSRby2.GIF (58.9 KB, 228 views)
File Type: gif SSRby3.GIF (60.2 KB, 128 views)
File Type: gif SSRby4.GIF (53.6 KB, 102 views)
File Type: gif SSRby5.GIF (65.7 KB, 110 views)
File Type: gif SSRby6.GIF (66.0 KB, 158 views)
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Old 21st October 2011, 01:10 PM   #3
Elvee is online now Elvee  Belgium
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Finally, any of the previous circuits can be fitted with a current limiter, to improve survivability.

Since in high voltage circuits, the SOAR could easily be exceeded, it will generally be necessary to include a folback mechanism.

Here, R9 determines the current limit, and R11 the amount of folding: for R11=∞, there is no folding, only pure current limit.
R11 cannot be made too small, as the circuit may have difficulties starting up.

If Q3 is in thermal contact with M1, it will also modulate the limit according to the temperature of the pass element, and may act as a thermal shutdown.

The first pic shows the output current at the onset of the limiting, and the second shows what happens when it is exceeded.
Attached Images
File Type: gif SSRfl1.GIF (58.5 KB, 237 views)
File Type: gif SSRfl2.GIF (55.4 KB, 210 views)
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Old 21st October 2011, 01:49 PM   #4
Elvee is online now Elvee  Belgium
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One more thing, the behavior in temperature, between -25°C and +75°C:
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Old 24th October 2011, 09:18 PM   #5
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Elvee, can you make your regulator work at 4 times your voltage? I need a good voltage regulator for GM70 triode, 1200volts... can not find a regulator for those voltages.
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Old 25th October 2011, 08:11 AM   #6
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Nice. How about soft start too?
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Old 25th October 2011, 01:04 PM   #7
Elvee is online now Elvee  Belgium
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Quote:
Originally Posted by esl 63 View Post
Elvee, can you make your regulator work at 4 times your voltage? I need a good voltage regulator for GM70 triode, 1200volts... can not find a regulator for those voltages.
There are two aspects to consider here.
One is the input to output differential, and the other is the absolute voltage above ground.

In principle, to regulate high voltages, you don't need high voltage devices: in order to regulate 1200V with a 1225V input, a LM317 would in theory suffice.
In practice, it would be destroyed in a matter of seconds.

Regarding the absolute level of voltage above ground, this regulator is well suited to handle it: there is no voltage-translation circuit from the ground, just resistors, and this makes it very resilient.

To build your regulator, you have basically two options: either you build a circuit that is only capable of handling the input/output differential, with comfortable regulations margins, using a 800V device for example, but then you are not allowed soft-start or current limitation, or anything that requires the MOS to block the full voltage, or you use a 1500V+ device that will allow you the full feature, and will also increase the general ruggedness.
Something like this for example:
http://www.st.com/internet/com/TECHN...CD00050744.pdf

Here is the basic regulator adapted for 1200V. A 600V transistor is sufficient, provided you don't have a large decoupling cap to charge at the output.

With a 1500V MOS, it will be more tolerant to mishaps.

But if you really want something bullet-proof, you can turn to glass: the schematic is highly flexible, and can readily be transfered to vacuum, either a power triode or a pentode, see example.
Attached Images
File Type: gif 1200Vn.GIF (52.8 KB, 258 views)
File Type: gif 1200Vtriode.GIF (52.2 KB, 207 views)
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Last edited by Elvee; 25th October 2011 at 01:11 PM.
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Old 25th October 2011, 01:40 PM   #8
Elvee is online now Elvee  Belgium
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Quote:
Originally Posted by quadtech View Post
Nice. How about soft start too?
That feature is already included: it is inherent to the bypassed versions, see below the start up sequence:
Attached Images
File Type: gif Startup.GIF (56.2 KB, 271 views)
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Old 27th October 2011, 02:25 PM   #9
tim845 is offline tim845  Hong Kong
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Nice. Would you qoute the value of R2, R3, R4 in post #7.
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Old 27th October 2011, 04:04 PM   #10
Elvee is online now Elvee  Belgium
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Quote:
Originally Posted by tim845 View Post
Nice. Would you qoute the value of R2, R3, R4 in post #7.
e6 = megohm: 10 to the 6th power.
I forgot to change to a more "civilized" unit.
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