440Hz vs 432Hz

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Tuning A to 440Hz is the standard tuning frequency.

I have found this reference in respect to tuning A to 432Hz:

According to musical theory, when playing in 432 tuning, middle C is closer to 256Hz, a frequency that is a multiple of 8Hz, which is more commonly known as “the heartbeat of the planet. 432 Hz musical therapy helps ease anxiety, bring down heart rate and blood pressure, and generally has a soothing effect.
432Hz is known as Verdi's A. Mozart also played in this tuning.

The difference between 440Hz and 432Hz is 8Hz.

Starting at 8 Hz and raising the pitch by 5 octaves we come to 256 Hz. With C at 256 Hz, we get A at 432 Hz.

On the other hand, with A at 440 Hz, we get C at 261.656 Hz.

Therefore, A at 432 Hz is neater in mathematical terms and is referred to as “scientific tuning”.


  • Verdi's A.jpg
    Verdi's A.jpg
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Having watched and listened to the video, my opinion is that the difference in tonality of the two different pianos probably takes precedence over their difference in tuning.

The 'tuned' piano has a more mellow sound.

But, where are the tuning frequencies of 440Hz an 432Hz mentioned in the video?
Where's that quote from? I find the "according to musical theory" a bit strange.
It's from a 'healing music for mind & body' site - what did you expect? :D 432 Hz Healing: Decoding the Secret Frequency

In its defence, it does quote the work of Maria Renold and her book: Intervals, Scales, Tones: And the Concert Pitch c = 128 Hz: Amazon.co.uk: Maria Renold, Anna Meuss, Bevis Stevens: Books

This video compares Renold's A432Hz tuning to the Equal Temperament A440Hz tuning:

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Don't confuse temperament with pitch.

Equal temperament is really a compromise that allows all the notes in a chromatic scale to be equal distances from each other. It allows any chords to be played in any key and sound 'correct'. A curious effect of our hearing dictates that the higher octaves are also tuned slightly sharp and the lowest octaves slightly flat. If the octaves are tuned perfectly the result can sound a little 'flat' and lacking brilliance. And a bass note that is slightly sharp also sounds terrible. Am I seeing an audio connection here... theoretical perfection isn't always the best sounding...

Unequal temperament (and there are many different temperaments) can be selected to suit a particular key that a piece is written in... and they can sound fantastic... but other keys that are more distant from the key that has been 'correctly' tuned sound absolutely awful.
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Right. For example I could take the recording of the 9 foot Yamaha grand playing at 440 and move it down to 432. But I doubt it would sound the same as the upright Yamaha tuned at 432 because the temperament would be different when they were tuned. There is more than just an overall pitch shift.
This whole tuning thing gets really interesting with instruments that have lots and lots of body resonance, like acoustic guitars. Here the modes being excited will change depending on absolute tuning, and so will the guitar's sound. The best-sounding tuning isn't likely to be either exactly 440 or 432 Hz though, so if it isn't just you and your guitar, you may have a problem.

Guitars have plenty of tuning-related quirks anyway. "True temperament" models attempt to rectify some of them.
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