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These have become very popular now and seem to have become the "new tripath ta2020 etc". Already in less than one year since the first non evaluation module emerged onto the market are many boards to choose from that utilize this IC. Threads are heavily polluted so this can be a place for people to document facts, tutorials etc with out the discussion pollution.
Given that some are calling the TI tpa311x series the "new tripath", some of the general information in the Sure TK2015 Modification wiki might be relevant.
There are other IC's in this family, but to date this is by far the most popular. With the TPA3110 sure electronics boards also being popular given their sub $10 dollar price tag.
Texas Instrument's TPA3116 Datasheet: http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/tpa3116d2.pdf
Massive diyAudio thread on this amp: TPA3116D2 Amp.
There are many pre-made TPA3116 PCBs available. diyAudio member KJA 2013 was keeping track of them. Latest picture with all known boards from post #2249:
Per the TI tpa3116 datasheet, the acceptable voltage range is 4.5 to 26 Volts. People have reported success across most of that range. Popular power supply voltages include 12V, 13.8V, 19V, 24V. Power supply can be any type: linear, switch mode or even battery. There were some reports that the sweet spot is obtained by staying under 21 V. 19V switch-mode power supplies are common for laptop computers (and some computer monitors); they are cheap and readily available.
A few members have reported great success with high-current regulated linear power supplies designed for HAM radio. In particular, the Astron RS-12A and Ten Tec 937 (which appears to be a re-branded Astron SL-11A).
Regarding batteries: sealed lead acid (SLA) and lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) are good choices.
Page 10 of the datasheet has useful graphs for computing max power needed.
Using the upper-right graph, maximum output power at 4ohm load, 26dB gain, BTL mode for 14V power supply is about 25 watts (and that's at 10% THD, unlikely anyone would ever want to listen at that level). Multiply by two for two channels, so say 50 watts total output power.
Using the graph just below that, the efficiency should be around 85%, but let's call it 80% just to be conservative.
50/.8 = 62.5 Watts of input power. For a 14V power supply, that works out to about 4.5 Amps. (Cut that in half if using 8 ohm speakers.)
The above calculation errs on the conservative side (i.e. some headroom is built-in to the calculations). However, you can always have a power supply that makes more current (Amps) available; the amp will only draw what it needs. (But voltage must be kept within the 4.5V to 26V range.)
The above example calculation can be used as a template for calculating required current at different voltage levels.
Note that the graphs on page 10 of the datasheet are for BTL mode. For PBTL mode, see the graphs farther down, on page 12.
There are many implementations of this board, but the one offered by Yuan-Jing ("YJ") has become one of the most popular. It appears to be based of the design by diyaudio member danzz.
Most of the components on the YJ Blue/Black board are through-hole and relatively easy to change.
Here's a labeled picture of the YJ blue/black board:
Datasheet suggested value: 220uF
Notes on DC Power Capacitors:
Stock YJ Blue/Black: Epcos MKP X2
Notes on Bootstrap Capacitors:
Factory default gain setting on the YJ blue/black board is 26 dB.
MASTER/SLAVE GAIN R1 (to GND) R2 (to GVDD) INPUT IMPEDANCE
Note: in the TI datasheet (and in the table above), the gain setting resistors are referred to as R1 and R2. On the Danzz-design YJ blue/black board, the gain setting resistors are labeled R12 and R13.
Notes on Ouput Filter Inductors:
Helpful Hints on Stock Inductor Removal:
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