Testing transistors with DMM or VOM
Am posting this as a general reference:
Testing transistors with DMM or VOM
Edited by Sam Goldwasser (original author is unknown)
This note describes procedures for testing of bipolar (NPN or PNP) transistors for catastrophic failures like shorts and opens. In most cases, this will identify bad Silicon transistors. Gain, frequency response, etc. are not addressed here. While the tests can be applied to Germanium devices, these are more likely to change characteristics, it would seem, without totally failing.
Note: Analog and Digital meters behave quite differently when testing nonlinear devices like transistors or diodes. It is recommended that you read through this document in its entirety. Most digital meters show infinite resistance for all 6 combinations of junction measurements since their effective resistance test voltage is less than a junction diode drop (if you accidentally get your skin involved it will show something between 200K and 2M Ohms). The best way to test transistors with a DMM is to make use of the "diode test" function which will be described after the analog test. For both methods, if you read a short circuit (0 Ohms or voltage drop of 0) or the transistor fails any of the readings, it is bad and must be replaced. This discussion is for OUT OF CIRCUIT transistors *ONLY*.
One exception to this occurs with some power transistors which have built in diodes (damper diodes reversed connected across C-E) and resistors (B-E, around 50 ohms) which will confuse these readings. If you are testing a transistor of this type - horizontal output transistors are the most common example - you will need to compare with a known good transistor or check the specifications to be sure. There are some other cases as well. So, if you get readings that do not make sense, try to confirm with a known good transistors of the same type or with a spec sheet.
Before testing an unknown device, it is best to confirm and label lead polarity (of voltage provided in resistance or diode test mode) of your meter whether it be an analog VOM or digital DMM using a known good diode (e.g., 1N4007 rectifier or 1N4148 signal diode) as discussed below. This will also show you what to expect for a reading of a forward biased junction. If you expect any Germanium devices, you should do this with a Ge diode as well (e.g., 1N34).
The assumption made here is that a transistor can be tested for shorts, opens, or leakage, as though it is just a pair of connected diodes. Obviously, simple diodes can be tested as well using the this technique. However, LEDs (forward drop too high more most meters) and Zeners (reverse breakdown - zener voltage - too large for most meters) cannot be fully tested in this manner.
Testing with a (Analog) VOM:
For NPN transistors, lead "A" is black and lead "B" is red; for PNP transistors, lead "A" is red and lead "B" is black (NOTE: this is the standard polarity for resistance but many multi-meters have the colors reversed since this makes the internal circuitry easier to design; if the readings don't jive this way, switch the leads and try it again). Start with lead "A" of your multi-meter on the base and lead "B" on the emitter. You should get a reasonable low resistance reading. Depending on scale, this could be anywhere from 100 ohms to several K. The actual value is not critical as long as it is similar to the reading you got with your 'known good diode test', above. All Silicon devices will produce somewhat similar readings and all Germanium devices will result in similar but lower resistance readings.
Now move lead "B" to the collector. You should get nearly the same reading. Now try the other 4 combinations and you should get a reading of infinite Ohms (open circuit). If any of these resistances is wrong, replace the transistor. Only 2 of the 6 possible combinations should show a low resistance; none of the resistances should be near 0 Ohms (shorted). As noted above, some types of devices include built in diodes or resistors which can confuse these measurements.
Testing with a (Digital) DMM:
Set your meter to the diode test. Connect the red meter lead to the base of the transistor. Connect the black meter lead to the emitter. A good NPN transistor will read a JUNCTION DROP voltage of between .45v and .9v. A good PNP transistor will read OPEN. Leave the red meter lead on the base and move the black lead to the collector. The reading should be the same as the previous test. Reverse the meter leads in your hands and repeat the test. This time, connect the black meter lead to the base of the transistor. Connect the red meter lead to the emitter. A good PNP transistor will read a JUNCTION DROP voltage of between .45v and .9v. A good NPN transistor will read OPEN. Leave the black meter lead on the base and move the red lead to the collector. The reading should be the same as the previous test. Place one meter lead on the collector, the other on the emitter. The meter should read OPEN. Reverse your meter leads. The meter should read OPEN. This is the same for both NPN and PNP transistors. As noted, some transistors will have built in diodes or resistors which can confuse these readings.
Thanks Steve, very informative.
What I want to know also, is can we use a DMMs transistor test function to match output trannies, or are small signal measurements not representative?
Testing MOSFETs with a DMM or VOM
Testing a MOSFET
Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
(found on the internet no author stated)
This testing procedure is for use with a digital multimeter in the diode test-range with a minimum of 3.3 volt over d.u.t. (diode-under-test). If your multi-meter is less than that it will not do the test. Check your meter manual for the specs.
Connect the 'Source' of the MosFet to the meter's negative (-) lead.
1) Hold the MosFet by the case or the tab but don't touch the metal parts of the test probes with any of the other MosFet's terminals until needed. Do NOT allow a MOSFET to come in contact with your clothes, plastic or plastic products, etc. because of the high static voltages it can generate.
2) First, touch the meter positive lead onto the MosFet's 'Gate'.
3) Now move the positve probe to the 'Drain'. You should get a 'low' reading. The MosFet's internal capacitance on the gate has now been charged up by the meter and the device is 'turned-on'.
4) With the meter positive still connected to the drain, touch a finger between source and gate (and drain if you like, it does not matter at this stage). The gate will be discharged through your finger and the meter reading should go high, indicating a non-conductive device.
What the test above actually does is testing the cut-off voltage, which is basically the highest voltage put on the gate without making it conduct. Such a simple test is not 100% -- but is useful and usually adequate.
When MOSFETS fail they often go short-circuit drain-to-gate. This can put the drain voltage back onto the gate where ofcourse it feeds (via the gate resistors) into the drive circuitry, prossibly blowing that section. It will also get to any other paralleled MosFet gates, blowing them also.
So, if the MosFets are deceased, check the drivers as well! This fact is probably the best reason for adding a source-gate zener diode; zeners fail short circuit and a properly connected zener can limit the damage in a failure! You can also add subminiature gate resistors -- which tend to fail open-circuit (like a fuse) under this overload, disconnecting the dud MosFet's gate.
Dying MOSFETS often emit flames or blow-out, even more so in hobby built electronics projects. What that means is that a defective unit can usually be spotted visually. They show a burned hole or 'something black' somewhere. I have seen them alot especially in ups's which can have as many as 8 or more mosfets in parallel. I always replace all of them if a couple are defective plus the drivers.
NEVER use one of those hand held solder-suckers (you know, the ones with a plunger) to desolder a HEX MOSFET. They create enough Electro Static Discharge to destroy a mosfet. Best method is using solder-wick or a professional 'ESD' safe desoldering station.
Don't know for sure...
I don't think the meter can adequately turn the fet on enough to give a true reading of the on resistance which is what we need....
Also, I'm not sure it will be very accurate simply due to the change in resistance that occurs as they heat up... The meter doesn't really have the drive to even switch them on much less warm the junction at all...
That having been said, I have never tried to correlate the DMM readings with the readings obtained from units under proper test...
Anyone else have any experience in this area???
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