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Old 20th February 2014, 04:33 AM   #1
ishiru is offline ishiru  Indonesia
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Default building a NAS

hi there..first, i'm sorry if i posted this on the wrong forum since i don't really know where should i ask this

as the title, i wanted to build a NAS.i actually ever did this but i only used 1 drive and using FreeNAS at that time

now i want to build a bigger one let's say 2*4TB and going more maybe until 12*4TBs

i have a PC, not very old actually..it uses an Athlon II X2 240, DFI LP BI 785G-M35 which i was changed some of the caps using some cerafines and silmics II , and an AcBel E2 470 which i also re-capped using Panasonic FCs, Cerafines, and other low ESR caps which i forgot what is it..


question is, is it good to use this PC as NAS?.i mean..is it reliable?..

what OS should i use to makes the NAS settings easier?

i'm planning to use more than 4 drives later but this mobo has only 6 port which 1 should be used for system disk and remains 5..is it possible to just add a RAID card to expand the capacity?..

i also wanted to know what system i should use?.RAID5, JBOD, RAID10?..

and then, is it possible to move the RAID/JBOD array if someday my PC died?


big thanks!

-add-

for music, would the network adds jitters to my music streams?
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Old 20th February 2014, 05:47 AM   #2
laplace is offline laplace  Australia
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If you're going to use a PC, use ZFS.
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Old 20th February 2014, 05:38 PM   #3
ishiru is offline ishiru  Indonesia
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thanks for the reply.i read the ZFS but i still couldn't get it.
is it more like JBOD?.and if 1 drive failed, it means i lost all the data on that disk?

i didnt see ubuntu on the compatibility list
is ubuntu didnt support this or the list isnt updated?
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Old 20th February 2014, 08:45 PM   #4
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Let's not get too mixed up, here.
ZFS is a file system. Pioneered by Sun/Solaris. You can install Solaris X86 on your system and use ZFS. One of the very nice things about ZFS is that it supports "snapshots" for data backup. They're near instant.

On the other question, "what if a drive fails?". No file system is immune from disk failure. That's why we use RAID. "Redundant Array of Inexpensive Drives". Some substitute "Independent".

RAID level 0 has no redundancy, and will loose all data on a disk failure.
RAID level 1 is disk mirroring. You need twice as many disks, and if one fails, you can replace it and regenerate what was on the dead one.
other common levels include RAID 4, where you have 1 extra driver for every 4, and any one disk failure can be rebuilt...

Your motherboard may be able to handle RAID. Solaris ZFS may also be able to create such arrays.
(Yeah, I used to be a system admin, and I used to work at Sun...)
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Old 20th February 2014, 08:47 PM   #5
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Oh, another nice thing about Solaris. I have my mail server (and NAS) on an old AMD pc running Solaris 10. Last year, the motherboard failed. Remembering how Windows doesn't like new hardware, I was somewhat fearful I'd loose years of e-mail archives, but. . .
New motherboard. Plugged in the same 4 disks, and it came up without any issue at all. Running 24x7 since.
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Old 20th February 2014, 09:24 PM   #6
laplace is offline laplace  Australia
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ZFS includes redundancy options that work similar to RAID-5 and RAID-6 (you can have as much or as little redundancy as you want, including multiple hot spares), and will protect you from disc failures the same as RAID. ZFS runs happily under linux so you don't need Solaris.

Additionally:
- you can grow a zpool, i.e. add discs to your volume
- it does end-to-end per-block checksums, so will save you from silent bitrot, bad blocks and controller CRC errors where RAID cannot

In theory btrfs has better reliability options than ZFS but it is nowhere near mature enough for serious use yet.

Some references:
- Atomic COWs
- RAID-Z howtos

And remember, no RAID or redundant filesystem is a backup. RAIDs have saved my bacon from failed discs twice in the last decade, but there is absolutely no substitute for an off-site copy.

Edit: with regard to the OP's last question about portability, it's a good one. If you run open-source software RAID of some variety (MD or ZFS) then your data is definitely portable: you can slap all the discs in USB cases and recover the RAID volume from an entirely different PC if you like, or just build a fresh box and put them in. If you use a physical RAID controller, you'd better have the option of buying a fresh controller for when yours dies, because it's a single point of failure. Never use a motherboard RAID controller, because in 5-10 years you won't be able to replace it with an identical chip and your data will probably be lost.

If RAID-Z is just too complicated for you to setup, then your best options are, in descending order:
- software RAID in linux using MD, running in RAID-6 mode (more redundancy, costs more)
- software RAID using MD, running in RAID-5 mode (usually-enough redundancy, absolute minimum cost); this is my current system
- a common (something you can find 20 copies of on eBay and therefore easily replaceable) hardware RAID controller in RAID-5 or RAID-6 mode
- unRAID (maybe. Not sure I trust it much, it's basically RAID-4 but I think at a file instead of block level)
- commercial NAS-in-a-box with RAID-5 option ($$$)
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Last edited by laplace; 20th February 2014 at 09:38 PM.
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Old 21st February 2014, 07:57 AM   #7
cmiu007 is offline cmiu007  Romania
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For ZFS you need some memory depending of ZFS level and capacity, you cand add a SSD to increase performance.

The easiest way is to use FreeNAS Project - Open Source Storage - FreeNAS Project Tryig reading some of the info from site regarding zfs and post your question on their forum.

Hardware Recommendations - Freenas

If you add the possibility to run virtual machines (hosting services like diferent flavors of dnla server and other services of SOs)based on theirs templates from my point of view is a winner.

I'm running one freenas server with zfs RAIDZ3 6 HDDs x 3 TB. When you are planning which zfs lvl you can search for the optimal number of hdds.

and it is totally free.
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Old 21st February 2014, 08:24 AM   #8
phofman is offline phofman  Czech Republic
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How do you intend to backup your NAS?
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Old 21st February 2014, 09:14 AM   #9
ishiru is offline ishiru  Indonesia
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thanks all for the replies!.i need time to understand

phofman : i dont really know how to backup them since it should be pain in @$$ if i should buy 80TB to have 40TBs w/ backups
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Old 21st February 2014, 09:19 AM   #10
cmiu007 is offline cmiu007  Romania
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Quote:
Originally Posted by ishiru View Post
thanks all for the replies!.i need time to understand

phofman : i dont really know how to backup them since it should be pain in @$$ if i should buy 80TB to have 40TBs w/ backups
you can have a 2 lvl aproach:

use snapshot functionality of zfs on the same machine (for accidentally deleted files) but if the machine/hdds dies it is probable to lost all data

off site backup for really important data (eg: family digital pictures)

or external hdds

with zfs don't forget to scrub data once in a while, and enable hdd smamt tests
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