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MultiWay Conventional loudspeakers with crossovers 

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27th April 2011, 04:16 PM  #1 
diyAudio Member
Join Date: Apr 2011

Crossover for 4ohm Tweeter and (2) 8 Ohms Woofers
Hello All,
This is my first post. I am generally a reader and most of the times I find my answer on forums. I am truly amazed how some people know just about everything. However there is something that is killing me and I need some help. I have now designed and constructed at least 2 sets of loudspeakers. My latest design uses 1x4 Ohm Tweeter and 2x8 Ohm woofers. Now I know that I can use these driver with different impadance. I also know that if I connect both the woofer drivers in parralel I will get 4 ohm load. Following is my question. Question: When I calculate the crossover using one of the online crossover tools (e.g. 2Way Crossover Designer / Calculator), what should I input as the 'Woofer Impedance'? Is it 8 ohms as the drivers are 8 ohms or should it be 4 ohms which will be as a result of the parallel wiring. Please help me as this is driving me insane. Also if possible, please explain me the logic of the answer. FYI: I will also be using a LPad and Zobel. Thanks so much for your help. 
27th April 2011, 04:28 PM  #2 
Speakerholic
diyAudio Moderator

4 ohms. Problem is that you are not likely to be exactly 4 ohms at the XO point. Impedance is frequency dependant and you are entering nominal figures only, not precise ones so your mileage may vary.

27th April 2011, 04:50 PM  #3 
diyAudio Moderator R.I.P.
Join Date: Nov 2005

what Cal says, impedance varies
with two 8" woofers, 2.5way might be a good idea handle one setion at a time woofers first listen, and adjust adjust the other driver section(s) to that finish with fine adjustment(s) multiples 
27th April 2011, 05:20 PM  #4 
diyAudio Member

First, you need to understand it's okay to mix 4 and 8 ohm drivers in speakers.
The caveat is you need to be aware of the true impedance at the crossover points you select and also be cognizant of the potentially higher efficiency of the 4 ohm driver and pad it down accordingly to match SPL's. Having written that, now follow post #2 & 3. 
27th April 2011, 05:53 PM  #5 
diyAudio Moderator R.I.P.
Join Date: Nov 2005

hey, instead of Lpad on tweeter I like to use a series resistor only
works especially well with a 4ohm tweeter but be aware that it changes xo function to me its an advantage, for adjustments makes series cap smaller, or lowers xo 'point' and it sound better than having additional paralel resistor 
27th April 2011, 08:20 PM  #6  
diyAudio Member
Join Date: Feb 2011

Quote:
Your methood of 4 ohm series with a 4 ohm tweeter is halfing the drive voltage, it is still an option and sometimes it is not a bad one. But be aware that tweeter impedance is specialy at Fs naturaly can be quite a lot higher than the 4 ohm series resistor. Why is this important? The voltage divider formed by the tweeter and the 4 ohm ressitor will not halve the voltage anymore, so the amount of padding does change, and becomes freqvency dependant. So, this solution can work, but it may do some funny things. First off it is better to compensate the drivers to have a more predictable impedance, then You can work out a crossover. And this is where Lpad comes in. You design the crossover , accounting the effect of compensation networks, if You add a simple series resistor to pad the tweeter, then You allso change crossover point. But, if you go with a proper Lpad, the final impedance does not or in real life, not significantly change the impedance seen by the crossover, therefore Your crossover can function as You wanted it, the crossover point will not drift away that mutch. This is why Lpad is better solution than simple series resistor. And supposedly the above is a more or less good crossover design practice. Surely one needs to mesure and calculate a lot, but the efforth is more than worth it. For the original thread starting question: "Question: When I calculate the crossover using one of the online crossover tools (e.g. 2Way Crossover Designer / Calculator), what should I input as the 'Woofer Impedance'? Is it 8 ohms as the drivers are 8 ohms or should it be 4 ohms which will be as a result of the parallel wiring. " > You input the impdeance value You achieve after compensating the driver impedance, mesured at desired crossover point. (notice, it will be different than 4 or 8 ohms. for the above reasons. ) 

27th April 2011, 10:25 PM  #7 
diyAudio Moderator R.I.P.
Join Date: Nov 2005

I never suggested a 4 ohm resistor
on my own build I'm using a 1ohm resistor I know Lpad is convenient because you can change tweeter SPL without affecting xo function but doing your own thing gives you the freedom to do it the way you think is best and admittedly, I hate L pads they never seem to work 100% but when you get the optimal interaction of a series resistor and the xo, it simply sounds better than L pad but ofcourse you need to know how it works if you look at famous speaker builders you will find that they do it too more and more often some will place it between amp and xo look at Troels Gravesen I think 'Elsinore' by Joe Rasmussen uses series resistor only too I have used and adjusted L pads extensively myself and wouldn't dream of using it again, unless I have to though I happen to like it to interact with xo but as things stands, this is really a minor issue 
27th April 2011, 11:28 PM  #8 
diyAudio Member
Join Date: Feb 2011

"hey, instead of Lpad on tweeter I like to use a series resistor only" >
"Your methood of 4 ohm series " > " never suggested a 4 ohm resistor" Actualy i do not get it. Do not get it wrong, it must be my lack of english knowledge. Actualy i do not see where did i write You suggested a 4 ohm resistor in series. Al i did say was in a nutshell that Your methood is adding a series ressitor instead of an Lpad. And You did confirm You prefer a series resistor. so why so offensive? 
27th April 2011, 11:51 PM  #9 
diyAudio Moderator R.I.P.
Join Date: Nov 2005


28th April 2011, 03:56 AM  #10  
diyAudio Member
Join Date: Feb 2003
Location: Jakarta

Quote:
If you want to understand more (it is more complicated than just theoretical fRLC formula), download a SpeakerWorkshop, and download a SpeakerWorkshop's project (*.swd) from RJB site. You can open this SWD file using SpeakerWorkshop. There you can find crossover for specific driver combination and the resulting chart. You can change the crossover value and recalculate to see changes to the charts. 

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