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abraxalito abraxalito is offline

diyAudio Member

About Me

  • About abraxalito
    Biography
    Ex professional- and consumer audio designer. Prior to working in audio I was in embedded systems.
    Location
    Hangzhou - Marco Polo's 'most beautiful city'. 700yrs is a long time though...
    Interests
    Maximizing dynamics and soundstage depth for the least money with multibit DACs
    Occupation
    English teacher, disruptive innovator with ARM Cortex M-series
    Country
    United Kingdom
  • Signature
    The great audio capacitor myth : 'There's such a thing as too many PSU caps'.

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  • Last Activity: Today 03:35 PM
  • Join Date: 19th September 2007

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Latest Blog Entry

Posted Today at 02:39 AM by abraxalito Comments 0
I've munged the earlier 8 inductor filters down to only 5 - this one is using off-the-shelf TDK inductors, SLF7045-681, albeit they need to be hand-selected to get the correct values as the production tolerance is 20%. X7R caps sound just fine, surprisingly

FR is -3dB at 17,8kHz with around 0.25dB of passband ripple.

Posted 3rd April 2014 at 03:08 AM by abraxalito Comments 10
This array of 127 10,000uF caps measures -j2.9mohms at 50Hz which I reckon makes it comfortably over 1F in capacitance. ESR is 1mohm @ 50Hz.

The individual caps were measuring on average 8,500uF. Although they're marked 10V (the brand is ChengX a slightly shady Chinese one) they're not good for anywhere near this voltage. I reckon they're in reality 6.3V and they seem to have decently low leakage at this working voltage. I shall be using them at 5V or below.

Update1 - seems I wasn't using enough copper in the wiring. I've now built a second one with 2.5mm2 wiring around the loops and 1.5mm diameter cross links and ESR is down to 0.5mohm @ 50Hz now, decreasing at higher freqs. I have enough caps left for a third one...

Update2 - now the first array has a basement level giving 2.1F total with ESR below 0.4mohms @ 50Hz. There are six paralleled TDA1387s atop the combined hexagons giving unprecedented LF dynamics. Amp long, long overdue for an upgrade.......

Posted 20th March 2014 at 03:18 AM by abraxalito Comments 16
Here's my current bench lash-up DAC based on three hexacaps. Total capacitance of the order of 1.3F.

32fs EIAJ is fed in, balanced, from the left, the central hexacap feeds two TDA1545ATs. Filters are TDK inductor based, six stage balanced with X7R caps (gasp!). Caps in the centre provide the mid-rail power (2.5V) which the I/V resistors are fed from. The two hexacaps on the right power the post amps based on AD815ARBs, gain set roughly to 26dB with a little NOS droop correction. They're the postage-stamp sized boards roughly in the middle. Output is differential and fed to ferrite-cored transformers to convert to SE.

I'm blown away by the dynamics of this, given the right recording. Next up is an amp based on paralleling 8 or 10 AD815s. Each fed from its own hexacap, of course....

Update1 - the DAC supply has now been upgraded to two tiers of the 4700uFs, interconnected by six 1.5mm diameter solid copper wires. Capacitive reactance measures 2.5mohm...

Posted 10th March 2014 at 08:01 AM by abraxalito Comments 4
Here's my latest crazy project, intended to answer the question 'How low can you go?' in power supply impedance. No listening tests yet, I've just finished assembling this stack of hexagon capacitor arrays out of cheap electrolytics. Total capacitance of the top 4 tiers is comfortably above 1F. The top tier is designed for lowest ESR at HF using Nichicon 1500uFs, the next tier is a trade between ESR and uF. The last two are the highest capacitance density I could find (a total of 182 4700uFs). I've yet to connect the bottom two hexagons to the upper tiers but the top two are connected by wires running through the gaps between caps.

The whole is intended to push the limits of low frequency noise in powering a couple of TDA1545s which will sit on a small PCB supported on thick wires from the centre of the top tier. I am aiming to get a capacitive reactance (at 50Hz) at the DAC supply pins below 3mohm and ESR below 1.5mohm.

Update1 : connected the bottom two tiers...

Posted 25th January 2014 at 01:28 AM by abraxalito Comments 7
Last night I finished building the second channel of my dual mono approach to DAC building which I've called 'free radical'. Here's a picture of the second channel's build just prior to adding all the crapacitors (cheap shanzai 'Sanyos' which measure extremely well). While building the second channel I was listening to the first in mono and that was a spur to quick completion

From left to right there's the AD605 with its top hat array of MLCCs - outputs are isolated via ferrite bead chokes from the AD8017 under its own pile of SMT ceramics. In between the two active stages are the capacitors associated with power supply reference voltage filtering. I realized from the previous build that as the AD605's gain is controlled by DC voltages, these voltages need to be low noise to ensure gain stability. Hence lots of RC filtering with those Nichicon and Rubycon low ESR lytics. I'm using BC817 transistors as low drop-out regulators and the reference voltages (2.5 and 5.7V) come...
Recent Comments
Yes, once in the single...
Posted 8th April 2014 at 01:48 AM by fas42 fas42 is offline
Good point - but still...
Posted 4th April 2014 at 11:31 PM by abraxalito abraxalito is offline
Just to check things...
Posted 4th April 2014 at 10:25 PM by fas42 fas42 is offline
Yeah except charge balancing...
Posted 4th April 2014 at 12:05 AM by abraxalito abraxalito is offline
Why not just do 2 in...
Posted 3rd April 2014 at 11:03 PM by fas42 fas42 is offline
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