*technical elec question* DC offset/input impedance relation - diyAudio
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Old 9th February 2005, 03:04 PM   #1
homer09 is offline homer09  Canada
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Question *technical elec question* DC offset/input impedance relation

Ok im trying to learn the technical aspect of DC offset and its relation to input impedance. Ive read in the forums, but found no clear explanation of the following question:

How is DC offset and input impedance related? What variations in input impedance increase/decrease DC offset?

also, How does one keep DC offset low with a pot as a volume control?

I attached the circuit diagram of the gain clone im thinking of building.
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Old 9th February 2005, 03:21 PM   #2
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It just comes down to simple ohm's law. The input draws a current (input bias current) 'I' which, when drawn through an impedance of 'R' ohms, creates a voltage drop 'V' of I*R. As the signal is referenced to ground, the actual level the input sees will be offset by this amount.

Ideally, you try to null out the effects of the input bias current by providing both inverting and non-inverting inputs with the same impedance to ground.

In the schematic you posted, the impedance (and thus the offset voltage) seen by the non-inverting input will vary with the position of the pot wiper.
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Old 9th February 2005, 03:34 PM   #3
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Richie, i understand how the imput impedance value in ohms is what determines the voltage drop to ground and it is what the opamp sees as input. But, isnt the input signal AC, how is this converted to a DC offset?

In my circuit, will there be large DC offset at the output (at any pot wiper position)? and maybe what forumla i need to caluclate it at any wiper position
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Old 9th February 2005, 04:08 PM   #4
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DC offset is just that: DC. Therefore your signal -- which is AC -- 'rides' on top of the DC offset. The offset is there under DC or no signal conditions as a constant voltage at the output of your op-amp and, when a signal is running through the op-amp it is simply in addition to the DC offset.

Forget the input signal causing DC offset, as I mentioned in my earlier post it is the input bias current that cause it. The offset is worsened by using large value resistors to bias the inputs.

The circuit you posted will have a DC offset but, like any circuit of that type it will be harmlessly small.

You already have the formula in my earlier post to work out the DC offset. Find out the input bias current for the chip from the datasheet and it should be obvious what to do Just remember to work in ohms, amps and volts.
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Old 10th February 2005, 08:18 PM   #5
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the largest factor in a circuit of this type, once the compensation resistor is added, will be the value of Rf. the bias and offset currents that flow into the inverting pin must also flow through the feedback resistor creating DC at the op amp output. So, the larger Rf is the more DC offest will be created.

Richie's first post explains that Ohm's Law is all you need to calculate it. He also points out that is should be harmlessly small with nearly any op amp.
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Old 11th February 2005, 12:05 AM   #6
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Quote:
Originally posted by Evan Shultz
Richie's first post explains that Ohm's Law is all you need to calculate it.
Well i beg to differ. a formula is useless if you don't know what values to plug in or how to apply it to the situation.
So, for the non EE here, can you guide me through calculating the DC offset for the schematic i posted.

i have:

input bias current: 0.2 uA (typical) *from datasheet as richie asked
pot value: 0 to 250K ohms
feedback: 22K ohms
shunt (NI to ground): 12K ohms
inverting to ground: 680 ohms

and of course, ohms law: V = IR

i understand better through formulas and numbers than through wordy explanations, so dont be shy with the numbers. Thanks for the crash course!

ps. i know DC offset wont be a problem, this is more for my personal understanding, i would like to build something i understand, not limit myself to following a schematic and procedure blindly.
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Old 11th February 2005, 12:27 AM   #7
Stocker is offline Stocker  United States
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so you gave the formula. Mix it up with gain of the amplifer.

right guys? or am I off(set) in my thinking?
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Old 11th February 2005, 04:31 AM   #8
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DC offset:

assume you have a offset voltage. in you case, this offset is multiplied by the gain of 22/0.68, not too good. this means a 10mV offset becomes over 220mV of offset.

second:

all amps draw some "Input Bias Current" and "Input Offset Current" the latter refers to the matching of bias current. if the impedance of non-inverting to ground is different then the impedance of inverting to ground, this input bias current will induce unequal voltages on each input, leading to DC offset.

input offset explains how likely matching of both resistances is to correct DC offset.



many amp circuits use capacitors to prevent the source from providing bias current to the amplifier, and in the feedback loop to reduce DC gain to 1.

in your example, chaning the pot changes the impedance of one input, thus chaning the DC offset due to input bias currents.

as for AC-DC offset well, it should be very small. such an effect is possible from the non-linear characteristics that are minimized in a good amplifier (or amplifier chip) design. this kinda thing can affect oscillators though.
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Old 11th February 2005, 06:54 AM   #9
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Opamp caracteristics are always related to input.
Dc voltage error on (Ve+ - Ve-) is
Vio - Ib*(Re+ - Re-) +Iio*(Re+ + Re-)/2 + (Vdd+Vss)/(2*CMRR)
Namely:
Vio: input offset voltage
Ib: input bias current
Re+, Re-: DC impedance seen by e+ and e- inputs
Iio: input offset current
Vdd: supply positive rail
Vss: supply negative rail
CMRR: common mode rejection ratio. This last error expresses that ground is not always at the equilibrium point of opamp, which is at mid-point of supplies. In other words: dc offset error related to asymetry of supply. On a big low-frequency transient, one rail of chipamp supply can swing. Effect is that DC offset seems to "jump".

To relate the dc voltage error to output, mutiply by DC gain.

For more precisions, see on-line doc at texas instruments called "opamp for everyone".
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Old 11th February 2005, 07:17 AM   #10
Keld is offline Keld  Sweden
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Quote:
Originally posted by Yoghourt

For more precisions, see on-line doc at texas instruments called "opamp for everyone".
Any chance for a link to that doc. Mysearch came up with a lot of interesting stuff, but not that one!
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