The first of the beam formers is also one of the most enduring types: the 6L6. Developed by RCA in the mid-1930s, this type was originally intended for use as an audio final. It included other, then new, features besides the elimination of an actual, physical suppressor grid required to smooth out the screen grid "kinks". This included the now standard Octal base (up to eight pins possible, and with a keyed base for proper socket alignment) and a metal envelope. The latter was made in one of two ways: a glass envelope VT slipped into a metal shield can, or using the shield can as the envelope, with a glass base to bring out the connections. Other improvements was to give the control grid and screen grid the same pitch and wire diameter. By overlaying these two grids, the negative control grid serves to "shadow" the screen, thereby reducing the useless...
Where was I? Right, back to the workshop and cue the music.
Sorry in advance for my photos. They get the job done, but some of them look pretty bad now. I'd retake them but the amp has long since been returned to it's owner.
Once both channels were running happily with their new parts on the benchtop power supply I turned my limited attention to the chassis. The phenolic insulators sandwiching the RCA jacks in place were starting to crumble so, some shiny new jacks were fitted courtesy of ApexJr.com for 99 cents. The input wiring was done with 22AWG shielded wire.
The pro Hafler models like the P125 and the P230 have a solid aluminum bracket for the ground connections between the main power supply caps. The DH200 and DH220 models only got some tinned wire which isn't very convenient or nice looking. I fashioned up a new bracket with some scrap...
Posted 3rd February 2010 at 02:17 AM bycviller Updated 14th February 2013 at 08:14 PM bycviller
As promised, I would make a guide to the boards and in particular to the additions I have made to the F5. I decided to do this in the blog, because then you can give me comments which I can use for improving the doc. However I'm not done at all, but I thought it would be nice to give you access to the BOM I have made.
IMPORTANT: Before you start stuffing your boards, you must read the manual/article written by Nelson Pass – available for download on the First Watt website (First Watt: Products: F5).
Posted 13th January 2010 at 06:54 PM byjan.didden Updated 13th January 2010 at 06:57 PM byjan.didden
Why would one use balanced interconnects, and how can we make them work well?
Balanced lines came about at a time where very long signal lines were coming in use for telephone and later for large audio performance venues. If you use a single screened line for your signal, and the line is long, the ground current through the screen causes a voltage between the ground points of the cable ends. Since the signal send out (and received) is the difference between the voltage on the signal wire and the ground wire, the unwanted signal (noise, hum) is effectively added to the wanted (music) signal. We don’t want that.
The trick is to use TWO signal lines in parallel. You send the signal over the two lines in such a way that the signal you want to transmit is the difference between the signals on these two wires, and then at the receiving end you have an amp that reacts to the difference between the two lines, so your signal at the far end is the difference between...
Posted 3rd November 2010 at 06:19 AM byjan.didden Updated 3rd November 2010 at 11:20 AM byjan.didden
Just a couple of days ago I posted something to try to debunk that tired old myth that 'feedback always comes too late and therefor can't work'. Apart from the fact that obviously it does work, which makes the first statement pretty stupid to begin with, here's my take on it.
The myth may result from an often repeated misconception that feedback comes 'after the fact' and therefore always comes too late.
This has been shown to not be the case over and over again but if you have no engineering background it may be difficult to grasp the concept. Let me try to help.
Obviously, there is a signal delay in an amp from input to output and back to the input through the feedback loop. Since the feedback loop is generally a pair of resistors, the bulk of the delay is in the amp. That is the case both in non-feedback as well as in feedback amps. Such delays are very small, often fractions of a microsecond, and in this context can be ignored.
In this schemo, Rk is the normal cathode bias resistor. Rl represents the tail load in parallel with the load impedance. Rg is the control grid DC return. The CF gives excellent high frequency performance since Miller Effect is absent, and the Cgk sees very little current since the grid and cathode are always at nearly the same potential. This makes the Cgk effectively smaller than its static value. The main component of input capacitance will be the reverse transfer capacitance: Cgp. With small signal triodes, it is easy to present a Hi-Z, Lo-C load to the driving stage. This isn't just helpful at RF.
This is another circuit which has lately come under unjustified criticism within certain audiophile circles. Much of this is unjustified on the basis that the CF is a negative feedback circuit. This view that all NFB is all bad does have a basis in fact. It has...
Posted 7th January 2010 at 06:10 PM byjan.didden Updated 11th February 2010 at 04:31 AM byJason
There are lots of types of voltage regulators, but in this installment I’ll talk about series regulators.
What’s a regulator? It’s all in the name: it REGULATES the voltage to the circuit to be powered to keep it constant and as free of noise and ripple as practical. The ‘regulation’ means that there is some circuitry that compares a reference voltage, like from a zener diode, to the regulated output voltage, and then uses the difference between the two to adjust another element to null that difference. The ‘compare-and-correct’ is crucial for a regulator, and is done by negative feedback….
Look at Fig 1: is there a regulator in there? No, they are all circuits that try to give a constant, ripple free voltage, but if you start to draw varying currents from them, the output will vary with that current and there is no mechanism that somehow tries to null out that variation. Fig 1c is better than 1b, because Q1 buffers the voltage from the zener reference, so...